This is a common technique used to assist conception where a sperm sample is produced by masturbation, and then handed to the laboratory staff to enable them to select the best looking and best swimming sperm in the sample. This is then inserted into the womb cavity just before ovulation is expected to occur, using a tiny catheter, in a procedure a bit like having a cervical smear test done.
This treatment may be offered to improve the chance of conception if sperm quality is normal or slightly low only. It is not appropriate for couples when sperm quality is poor. The procedure is not recommended when the fallopian tubes are damaged. The insemination is performed in a natural cycle if female ovulation is predictable and regular, but it is often combined with treatment to stimulate ovulation (tablets or injections) to further improve the chance of pregnancy.
Pregnancy should result within 6 cycles of treatment where ovulation is confirmed and the sperm preparation used for the insemination is good. In vitro fertilisation would be recommended at that stage if conception has not occurred, or sometimes earlier in older couples, or when the cycle response has not been good.